The Dubrovnki City Walls are among the finest and most complete in Europe. They protected the freedom of Dubrovnik Republic for centuries. They surround the entire Old City with their 1940 meters of length and up to 25 meters of height. The whole City Wall complex was built from the 8th until the 16th century, consisting of an inner and outer section. There are five bastions, 3 circular and 12 square and rectangular towers, two corner towers, and one huge fortress. The outer section of City Walls consists of a lower wall, having 10 semicircular bastions built by the famous Italian architect Michelozzo. The town is defended by two more separate fortresses, at Revelin on the eastern side and Lovrijenac on the southwest side. The moat ran around the outside section of the City Walls.